by Laura Hodges

N.B. The following bibliographic entries were compiled to serve my research purposes on the subject of Costume Rhetoric in Geoffrey Chaucer’s works. Therefore, scholars researching, for example, costumes mentioned in Old French works may find that while this bibliography may assist, it is unlikely to satisfy all of their needs. There are, at least, two reasons for this: 1. Certain specialized costumes differ from location to location (for example, English legal dress is distinctive after ca 1350); and 2. Garment styles might vary in their details according to individual geography, even if the same kinds of garments were worn by persons of more than one geographical location and were known by more or less the same names. This is true even while one might correctly generalize about costume similarities all across Europe in a given year in the Middle Ages, so long as one acknowledges that differences might be found in the details. However, it is fruitless to generalize about medieval clothing across the span of years known as the Middle Ages because of periodic changes in technology, cultural influences, available wealth and economic conditions, as well as the influence of government and church, and also because of a developing fashion system that gathered momentum through these centuries.

Annotations — These bracketed comments, following most entries, were jotted down, somewhat unevenly, to assist my own memory. I have left them in place, on the chance that they might prove useful to others. Users should take them on a “for what it is worth” basis, and feel free to contact me with corrections and additions.

Table of Contents:



III. HISTORY OF COSTUME (primarily, but not exclusively, English)










Arnold, Janet. A Handbook of Costume. London, 1980. [Provides many bibliographies. A valuable section describes appropriate expectations for learning about historical costume from the visual arts. There is a good introduction, a Table of Contents organized according to type of visual representations of costume, under Part I. Other parts include: Dating Costume from Construction Techniques; Costume Conservation; Costume for Children and Students; Costume for the Stage; Costume Bibliography; Collections of Costume and Costume Accessories in England, Scotland and Wales, including museum addresses (telephone numbers arranged alphabetically under towns are likely out of date).]

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There are no records of any person in England (up to 1400) who was prosecuted in accordance with these laws. Therefore, they are useful only to show the attitude of members of Parliament and the King at the time of their passing.

Baldwin, Frances Elizabeth. Sumptuary Legislation and Personal Regulation in England. Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science Series 44.1. Baltimore, 1926. [Includes footnotes.]

The Statutes of the Realm. Vol. 1. London, 1910, rpt. 1963. [Editorial notes.]


Baudrillart, Henri. Histoire du luxe privéet public depuis l’antiquité jusqu’à nos jours. 2nd ed. Paris: Hachette, 1881.

Brundage, James. “Sumptuary Laws and Prostitution in Late Medieval Italy.” Journal of Medieval History 13 (1987): 343-55.

Bulst, Neithard. “Le législation somptuaire d’Amadée VIII.” Amadée VIII-Félix V, premier duc de Savoie et pape, 1383-1451. Lausanne: Bibliothèque historique vaudoise, 1992. 191-200.

Chojnacki, Stanley. “The Power of Love: Wives and Husbands in Late Medieval Venice.” Women and Power in the Middle Ages. Ed. Mary C. Erler and Maryanne Kowaleski. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1988. 126-48.

Gatineau, Marcel. Le luxe et les lois somptuaires. Caen: E. Lanier, 1900.

Giraudias, Etienne. Etude historique sur les lois somptuaires. Poitiers: Société française d’imprimerie et de librairie, 1910.

Greenfield, Kent Roberts. “Sumptuary Law in Nürnberg: A Study in Paternal Government.” Johns Hopkins Studies in Historical and Political Sciences 36.2 (1918): 1-139.

Hughes, Diane Owen. “Regulating Women’s Fashion.” A History of Women: Silences of the Middle Ages. Ed. Christiane Klapisch-Zuber. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992. 136-58.

—-. “Sumptuary Laws and Social Relations in Renaissance Italy.” Disputes and Settlements: Law and Human Relations in the West. Ed. John Bossy. Cambridge, Engl.: Cambridge University Press, 1983. 69-100.

Hunt, Alan. Governance of the Consuming Passions: A History of Sumptuary Law. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996.

Killerby, Cathering Kovesi, and Ronald Rainey. Sumptuary Law in Italy 1200-1500. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Kraemer-Raine, Pierre. Le luxe et les lois somptuaires au moyen âge. Paris: Ernest Sagot, 1920.

Lériget, Marthe. Des lois et impôts somptuaires. Montpellier: L’Abeille, 1919.

Moyer, Johanna B. “Sumptuary Law in Ancien Régime France, 1229-1806.” Diss. Syracuse University, 1996.

Rainey, Ronald E. “Dressing Down the Dressed Up: Reproving Feminine Attire in Renaissance Florence.” Renaissance Society and Culture: Essays in Honor of Eugene F. Rice, Jr. Ed. John Monfasani and Ronald G. Musto. New York: Italica Press, 1991. 217-37.

Sponsler, Claire. Drama and Resistance: Bodies, Goods, and Theatricality in Late Medieval England. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1997.

—-. “Narrating the Social Order: Medieval Clothing Laws.” CLIO 21.3 (1992): 265-82.

Stuard, Susan Mosher. “Gravitas and Consumption.” Gilding the Market: Luxury and Fashion in Fourteenth-Century Italy. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006. [Concerns 14th c. sumptuary laws; Color plates; B&w photos, illustrations; Notes, Bibliography, Index].

de Vertot, L’abbé. Mémoire sur l’établissement des lois somptuaires. Paris: Académie des inscriptions, 1766.

Vincent, John Martin. Costume and Conduct in Laws of Basel, Bern and Zurich, 1370-1800. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1935.

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III. HISTORY OF COSTUME (primarily, but not exclusively, English):

N.B.: For scholarly use, the best of the works below provide the reader with notes and a complete bibliography, as well as full identification of all illustrations. Earlier works in this category often omit one or all of these and sprinkle their text with unsubstantiated opinions (often true, but still unsubstantiated). Books in this category that cover broad historical periods often provide superficial coverage of each period included; their generalizations may be misleading.
Caution: Use no one source as an only authority. Best results are derived from a judicious use of the most scholarly works and the comparison of a number of sources to determine points of, and reasons for, disagreement.

Ashdown, Mrs. C. H. [Emily Jessie]. British Costume During xix Centuries. London, n.d. [No notes; Line drawings & engravings of visual arts with attributions; Glossary 359-63.]

Bishop, W. J. “Notes on the History of Medical Costume.” Annals of Medical History , n.s. 6.3 (May 1934): 193-218.

Brooke, Iris. English Costume from the Fourteenth through the Nineteenth Century. NY: The Macmillan Company, 1937. [Not recommended; Pictures are artists’ impressions.]
—-. English Costume of the Later Middle Ages: The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries. London: Black, 1935. [Not recommended: Pictures are artists’ impressions.]

—-. A History of English Costume. NY: Theatre Arts Books, 1972. [Aimed at a general audience according to p. vi; Covers 1066-1970 in 39 pages; Line drawings are dated, with source undocumented.]

Burnham, Dorothy K. Cut my Cote. Ontario: Royal Ontario Museum, 1973. [Photos, b&w; line drawings; patterns; all illustrations identified, dated.]

Clark[e], E. C. “English Academical Costume (Mediæval).” The Archæological Journal 50 (1893): 137-49, 183-209. [Informally documented in text.]

Cunnington, Cecil Willett, and Phillis Cunnington. Handbook of English Mediaeval Costume. London, 1952. [Bibliography, but no notes; Sources of illustrations provided, 193-201; Line drawings.]

Cunnington, C. Willett and Phillis Cunnington. The History of Underclothes. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1992. [Medieval Period, pp. 21-33; Photos, b&w, identified & dated; line drawings, dated; Index].

Cunnington, C. Willett, Phillis Cunnington, and Charles Beard. A Dictionary of English Costume. London: Adam & Charles Black, 1960; 1972. [Entries provide dates of use, gender designation, description/definition of item; Attribution of definition, occasional; Line drawings/sketches; Glossary of fabric names, with dates of use; List of obsolete color names, with dates (but some usage is known to be earlier than dates given).]

Cunnington, Phillis, and Catherine Lucas. Charity Costumes of Children, Scolars, Almsfolk, Pensioners. London: Adam and Charles Black, 1978.

—-. Costume for Births, Marriages and Deaths. 1972. [Text gives documented examples; Notes; Illustrations, varied and documented.]

—-. Occupational Costume in England from the Eleventh Century to 1914. London: Adam and Charles Black, 1967; rpt. with corrections 1976. [Speculates in text re: Miller’s white coat, without providing documentation; Line drawings, documented.]

Davenport, Millia. The Book of Costume. 2 vols. NY, 1948. [Based on the visual arts–many pictures, documented, with corresponding descriptions of costumes pictured; Intro. to each period, followed by pictures and descriptions. Vol. 1 goes to mid-sixteenth century.]

Elliott, D. “Dress as Mediator between Inner and Outer Self: The Pious Matron of the High and Later Middle Ages.” Mediaeval Studies 53 (1991): 279-308.” [Notes]

Evans, Joan. Dress in Mediaeval France. Oxford, 1952. [Illustrations documented; scholarly treatment.]

Fairholt, F. W. Costume in England: A History of Dress to the End of the Eighteenth Century. 4th ed. Revised, H. A. Dillon. 2 vols. London: George Bell and Sons, 1909. [Line drawings (700+ engravings) with ms. attributions; Glossary in Vol. 2; Bibliography, xi-xiv.]

ffoulkes, Charles. The Armourer and His Craft: From the XIth to the XVIth Century. 1912; New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1988. [Plates rearranged for 1988 ed.; B&w Photos, Line drawings with attributions; List of reference works; Glossary 153-67, includes foreign terms; List of armourers’ marks; Index.]

Gutarp, Else Marie. Medieval Manner of Dress: Documents, Images and Surviving Examples of Northern Europe, Emphasizing Gotland in the Baltic Sea.. Trans. Desirée Koslin. Russi 3. Visby: Gotlands Fornsal, 2001. [Text informative — describes / identifies illustrations (color plates, engravings, line drawings, photos of reconstructed costumes); Bibliography; List of Illustration sources; Patterns diagrammed.]

Hargreaves-Mawdsley, W. N. A History of Legal Dress in Europe until the end of the Eighteenth Century. Oxford, 1963. [Notes and commentary.]

Hartley, Dorothy R. Mediaeval Costume and Life. London: B. T. Batsford, Ltd., 1931. [Patterns, rudimentary, for medieval costumes; drawings and reproductions of mss. illuminations, identified (without fol. numbers), b&w and numerous; some vagueness in connecting comments with illustrations.]

Hotchkiss, Valerie R. Clothes Make the Man: Female Cross Dressing in Medieval Europe. New York & London: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1996. [Discusses reasons for, results of, types who do; no mention of specific costumes.]

Houston, Mary G. Medieval Costume in England & France: The 13th, 14th, and 15th Centuries. London, 1965; New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1996. [Unabridged, but slightly altered republication; Color plates inside cover front/back, b&w pictures, line drawings, occasionally hard-to-find attributions; Minimum bibliography; Glossary 219-26.]

Kazhdan, Alexander P. “Women at Home.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 52 (1998): 1-17. 13-15. [Byzantine women’s costume.]

Kelly, Francis M. and Randolph Schwabe. A Short History of Costume and Armour, Chiefly in England. Vol. 1 (1066-1485). London, 1968; New York: Benjamin Bloom, Inc., 1968. [Middle Ages covered in 82 pages; Pictures, b&w, and line drawings; Index; Glossary of terms.]

Köhler, Carl. A History of Costume. Ed. and augmented by Emma Von Sichart. Trans. Alexander K. Dallas. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1963. [Covers time from antiquity through 1870; Photos, b&w, line drawings, elementary patterns; Short bibliography; Index.]

Marly, Diana de. Fashion For Men: An Illustrated History. New York: Holmes & Meier Publishers, Inc., 1985. [Ch. 1, “A Verray Parfit Gentil Knight” (11-27) concerns medieval costume; Pictures; Endnotes; List of illustrations, credits/museums.]

McClintock, H. F. Old Irish and Highland Dress. Dundalk, 1950.

McCloud, Rev. Henry J. Clerical Dress and Insignia of the Roman Catholic Church. Milwaukee, 1948. [Notes.]

Megaw, B. R. S. “The Irish Shaggy Mantle.” Journal of the Manx Museum 5 (1945-46).

Newton, Stella Mary. Fashion in the Age of the Black Prince: A Study of the years 1340-1365. Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1980; 1999. [Scholarly treatment; Photos, b&w; List of Illustrations; Notes; Bibliography; Glossary.]

Norris, Herbert. Church Vestments: Their Origin & Development. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, Inc., 2002. [Unabridged; Color plates, b&w photos, sketches, line drawings; List of plates, figures; Attributions, incomplete; List of authorities cited; Historical timeline; Index.]

—-. Costume & Fashion: Senlac to Bosworth 1066-1485. Vol. 2. NY, 1950. [Covers 1066-1485; Photos, b&w, drawings; difficult-to-find attributions in text for some; List of figures with no attributions; Historical timelines.]

Owen-Crocker, Gale R. Dress in Anglo-Saxon England. 1986; Woodbridge, UK: Boydell, 2004 [updated, expanded]. [1986 ed.: Scholarly treatment; Photos, b&w, line drawings; Appendix of garment names, 203-8; Notes; Bibliography. 2004 ed. includes Color plates.]

Payne, Blanche. History of Costume: From the Ancient Egyptians to the Twentieth Century. NY, 1965. [Often lacks detail.]

Pinasa, Delphine. Costumes: Modes et manières d’être de l’Antiquité au Moyen Âge. Paris: R.E.M.P.ART, 1992. [Covers ancient Greek dress through French mid-14th c.; Photos, b&w, line drawings; Glossary 104-9; Short bibliography.]

Piponnier, Françoise, and Perrine Mane. Dress in the Middle Ages Trans. Caroline Beamish. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1997. [Written for general audience; No notes; Covers medieval Europe; Photos, b&w, with full attributions; Glossary, 164-7; Bibliography, lists 7 scholarly articles by Piponnier, and 1 by Mane, re: medieval French/European costume.]

Planché, James Robinson. A Cyclopaedia of Costume or Dictionary of Dress. 2 vols. London, 1876. [Pictures, b&w, with attributions.]

Scott, Margaret. The History of Dress Series: Late Gothic Europe, 1400-1500. Ed. Dr. Aileen Ribeire. New Jersey, 1980. [Photographs with attributions; Notes.]

Settle, Alison. English Fashion. London: Colling, 1946. [Text, 7-48 only, treating from the Anglo Saxon period to the 1940’s; necessarily a superficial treatment.]

Strutt, Joseph. A Complete View of the Dress and Habits of the People of England, from the Establishment of the Saxons in Britain to the Present Time: Illustrated by Engravings Taken from the Most Authentic Remains of Antiquity. 2 vols. London, 1876; London: The Tabard Press Limited, 1970. [Critical & explanatory notes by J. R. Planché; engravings from BL mss. with attributions given.]

Taylor, Lou. Mourning Dress: A Costume and Social History. London: Allen & Unwin, 1983. [Concentrates primarily on the Victorian Period; mentions earlier customs only briefly.]

Wagner, Eduard, et al. Medieval Costume, Armour and Weapons 1350-1450. London, 1962. [Plates with attributions.]

Way, Albert. “Illustrations of Medieval Manners and Costume from original documents. Jousts of Peace, Tournaments, and Judicial Combats.” Archeological Journal 4 (1847): 226-239. [Notes; 2 sketches.]

Yarwood, Doreen. The Encyclopaedia of World Costume. London: B. T. Batsford, 1978. [Covers a broad spectrum of time; line drawings.]

Zilestra-Zweens, H. M. Of His Array Telle I No Lenger Tale: Aspects of Costume, Arms and Armour in Western Europe, 1200-1400. Amsterdam, 1988. [Photos, b&w, identified; Notes.]

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Amphlett, Hilda. Hats: A History of Fashion in Headwear. Buckinghamshire: Richard Sadler Ltd., 1974. [Sketches of headdresses, dated but attributions seldom provided; 14th c. covered, 31-40.]

Armstrong, N. Jewellery: An Historical Survey of British Styles and Jewels. Guildford and London: Lutterworth P, 1973. [Provides information on gemstones used as amulets.]

Beck, S. William. Gloves, their Annals and Associations: A Chapter of Trade and Social History. London: Hamilton, Adams & Co., 1883; reissued Detroit: Singing Tree P, 1969. [Informally documented within text.]

Clarke, E. C. “College Caps and Doctors’ Hats.” The Archaeological Journal 61 (1904): 33-73. [Documented informally within text.]

Cuming, H. Syer. “History of Purses.” Journal of the British Archeological Association 14 (1858): 131-44. [Sketches; Documented informally within text.]

Deevy, Mary B. Medieval Ring Brooches in Ireland: A study of Jewellery, dress and society. Monograph Series No. 1 Wicklow: Wordwell Ltd., 1998. [Color plates, sketches, with attributions; Maps, graphs; Bibliography; Catalogue; Glossary 141-2.]

Egan, Jeff, and Frances Pritchard, et al. Dress Accessories c. 1150-c. 1450. Medieval Finds From Excavations in London: 3. London: The Stationery Office, 1993. [Color plates, b&w photos, sketches, all with attributions; Bibliography.]

Evans, Joan. A History of Jewellery 1100-1870. Boston, 1970. [Scholarly treatment; Notes; Illustrations, photos, with attributions.]

—-. Magical Jewels of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance particularly in England. NY, 1976. [Scholarly treatment; Notes.]

Gardner, Arthur. “Hair and Head-Dress, 1050-1600.” Journal of the British Archaeological Association. Series 3, 13 (1950): 4-13. [Photos with attributions; Documentation, informal, in text.]

Grew, Francis, and Margrethe de Neergaard. Medieval Finds from Excavations in London: 2 Shoes and Pattens. London: HMSO, 1994. [Chapter on shoes/pattens depicted in art and literature; Sketches with attributions; Glossary of shoe terms pp 123-5; List of figures and concordance.]

Hartley, D. R. [see above]

Jewelry, 7,000 Years: An International History and illustrated survey from the collections of the British Museum . Ed. Hugh Tait. New York: H. N. Abrams, 1987, c1986. [Detailed information.]

Lacy, Charles de Lacy. [sic] The History of the Spur. London, 1911. [Plates.]

Lescher, Wilfrid. The Rosary. London, 1888.

Lightbown, Ronald W. Mediaeval European Jewellery: with a catalogue of the collection in the Victoria and Albert Museum. [London]: The Victoria and Albert Museum, 1992. [Scholarly treatment; Color plates, b&w plates; Notes; Bibliography.]

Newton, Stella Mary, and Mary M. Giza. “Frilled Edges.” Textile History 14.2 (1983): 141-152. [Treatment of coverchiefs; Photos, b&w.]

Wilcox, R. Turner. The Mode in Footwear. New York, 1948.

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Dale, Marian K. “The London Silkwomen of the Fifteenth Century.” Economic History Review 1st ser., 4 (1933): 324-35. [Notes.]

Ewing, Elizabeth. Fur in Dress. London: B. T. Batsford, 1981. [Brief summary treatment; Some interesting ideas highlighted; Early fur use and medieval period covered, 11-27.]

Fox-Davies, Arthur Charles. A Complete Guide to Heraldry. London: Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1950; rpr. with additions of the 1909 ed. [Authoritative; Useful for discussing heraldic embroidery.]

King, Donald, and Santina Levey. The Victoria & Albert Museum’s Textile Collection: Embroidery in Britain from 1200-1750. London: V&A Publications, 1993; rpt. 2001. [Notes; Color Plates; Glossary; Stitches diagrammed.]

Lacy, Kay. “The Production of ‘Narrow Ware’ by Silkwomen in Fourteenth and Fifteenth Century England.” Textile History 18.2 (1987): 187-204. [Notes; Appendix, “Silkwomen, 1300-1500” (most active in London).]

Nevinson, J. L. “Buttons and Buttonholes in the Fourteenth Century.” Costume 11 (1977): 38-77), 38-44. [i.e. The Journal of the Costume Society; B&w photos, identified.]

Opus Anglicanum: English Medieval Embroidery. Exhibition Catalogue: The Victoria and Albert Museum, 26 September to 24 November 1963. London: The Arts Council, 1963. [Catalogue; B&w plates; Glossary, p. 10.]

Staniland, Kay. Medieval Craftsmen: Embroiderers. Toronto, 1991. [Plates, color, b&w, identified; Glossary; Stitches diagrammed; Brief bibliography; Index.]

Sutton, Anne F. “Alice Claver, Silkwoman of London and Maker of Mantle Laces for Richard III and Queen Anne.” The Ricardian 5.70 (Sept. 1980): 243-47. [Notes.]

Veale, Elspeth M. The English Fur Trade in the Later Middle Ages. Oxford, 1960. [Scholarly treatment; Pictures; Glossary.]

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Baines’s Account of the Woollen [sic] Manufacture of England. Rpt. from Thomas Baines’ Yorkshire, Past and Present, 1875; NY: Augustus M. Kelley, Publishers, 1970. [Provides measurements.]

Beck, S. William. The Draper’s Dictionary: A Manual of Textile Fabrics, Their History and Applications. London, 1882. [Now very out of date for some entries.]

Bridbury, A. R. Medieval English Clothmaking: An Economic Survey. London, 1982.

The Cambridge History of Western Textiles. 2 vols. Ed. David Jenkins. Cambridge, Engl.: Cambridge University Press, 2003. [Covers textile production from antiquity through modern period; Color plates, b&w photos, figures, charts, identified amply; Bibliography; Index.]

Crowfoot, Elisabeth, Frances Pritchard and Kay Staniland. Textiles and Clothing c.1150-c.1450. Medieval Finds from Excavations in London: 4. London: HMSO, 1992; rpt. 1996. [Color plates, b&w photos, line drawings, charts, amply identified; Appendix on dyes; Concordance; Glossary; Text documented parenthetically; Bibliography.]

Gray, H. L. “The Production & Export of English Woollens in the Fourteenth Century”. English Historical Review 39 (1924): 13-35. [Notes; Cloth measurements, n.4, p. 18.]

Heaton, Herbert. The Yorkshire Woollen and Worsted Industries: From the Earliest Times up to the Industrial Revolution. 2nd ed. Oxford, 1965. [Notes.]

Hoffmann, Marta. The Warp-Weighted Loom. Norway, 1964. [Notes; Figures.]

James, John. History of the Worsted Manufacture in England. London, 1968. [Notes; Prices.]

Jenkins, J. Geraint, ed. The Wool Textile Industry in Great Britain. London, 1972.

Lacy, Kay E. “Women and Work in Fourteenth and Fifteenth Century London.” Women and Work in Preindustrial England. London, 1985. 24-82. [Notes; Prices; Appendix of Silkwoen, 1300-1500.]

Linthicum, M. Channing. “‘Faldyng’ and ‘Medlee'”. JEGP 34 (Jan. 1935): 39-41. [Notes.]

Lipson, E. The Economic History of England. Vol. 1. 12th ed. NY, 1959.

Martin, Rebecca. Textiles in Daily Life in the Middle Ages. Exhibition Catalog. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1985. [Color & b&w pictures; Catalog descriptions of fabrics; Glossary; Notes, Select bibliography.]

Miller, Edward. “The Fortunes of the English Textile Industry during the Thirteenth Century.” The Economic History Review 18, 2nd series (1965): 64-82. [Notes.]

Mitchell, Lillias. Irish Spinning, Dyeing and Weaving. Dundalgan, 1978.

Monnas, Lisa. “Silk Cloths Purchased for the Great Wardrobe of the Kings of England, 1325-1462.” Ancient and Medieval Textiles: Studies in Honour of Donald King, ed. Lisa Monnas and Hero Granger-Taylor. Textile History 20.2 (1989): 283-307. [Notes; B&w photos, identified; Appendix I, cloth purchases & dimensions, 1325-1462; Appendix II, prices of cloths by ell.]

Moore, Ellen Wedemeyer. The Fairs of Medieval England: An Introductory tudy. Studies and Texts 72. Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies. Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 1985. [Notes; Tables; Prices.]

Munro, John H. “The Medieval Scarlet and the Economics of Sartorial Splendour” in Cloth and Clothing in Medieval Europe: Essays in Memory of Professor E. M. Carus-Wilson. Ed. N. B. Harte and K. G. Ponting. Pasold Studies in Textile History 2. London, 1983. [Notes; Tables, prices, dimensions, finishing, dyeing.]

Ostergaard, Else. Woven into the Earth: Textiles from Norse Greenland. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press, 2004. [Norse Greenland textiles (c. 985-1480); Color photos, b&w figures.]

Power, Eileen. The Wool Trade in English Medieval History. London, 1941.

Rock, Daniel. Textile Fabrics. London, 1876.

Rogers, James E. Thorold. A History of Agriculture and Prices in England. Oxford, 1892; rpt, 1963. [Vol. 1&2 = 1259-1400; vols. 3&4 = 1401-1582.]

Salzman, L. F. English Industries of the Middle Ages. Oxford, 1923. [Notes; Appendix, records of repair.]

Satchell, John. The Kendal Weaver. Kendal, Cumbria: Kendal Civic Society & Frank Peters Publishing, 1986. [ 14-22 re Kendal greens; Color plates, b&w photos, sketches, maps, family tree, charts identified; Bibliography.]

Staniland, Kay. “Clothing and Textiles at the Court of Edward III, 1342-1352.” Collectanea Londiniensia: Studies in London Archaeology and History Presented to Ralph Merrifield. Ed. Joanna Bird, Hugh Chapman, and John Clark. London and Middlesex Archaeological Society, Special Papers 2. London, 1978. 223-34. [Notes; Lists of costumes; Appendix, Tailors to the Royal Family, 21-23 Edw. III.]

Steele, Mary. Lincolnshire Land, Longwools, and Legends. Lindfield, West Sussex: Pelham Press, 1996. 230-6. [Color plate, b&w photos, sketches, identified; Author’s contact information.]

Unwin, George. Industrial Organization in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. London, 1960. [Has earlier history also.]

van Uytven, Raymond. “Cloth in Medieval Literature of Western Europe.” in Cloth and Clothing in Medieval Europe: Essays in Memory of Professor E. M. Carus-Wilson. Ed. N. B. Harte and K. G. Ponting. Pasold Studies in Textile History 2. London, 1983. [Notes; Maps, Table of cloth towns, Table of kinds of cloths.]

Wiesner, Merry. “Spinsters and Seamstresses: Women in Cloth and Clothing Production” in Rewriting the Renaissance. Ed. Margaret Ferguson, Maureen Quilligan, and Nancy J. Vickers. Chicago, 1986. [Re: women in continental Europe primarily.]

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Bettmann, Otto L. A Pictorial History of Medicine. Springfield, Illinois, 1962. [Pictures.]

Bond, Frances. Wood Carvings in English Churches: Misericords. London, 1910. [Photos, identified.]

Dodwell, C. R. Painting in Europe 800-1200. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, 1971.

English Stained Glass. Intro. by Herbert Read; Text and comments by John Baker; Photos by Alfred Lammer. New York, n.d. [Color plates.]

Fryer, Alfred C. “Wooden Monumental Effigies in England and Wales.” Archaeologia: or Miscellaneous Tracts Relating to Antiquity 61 (1909): 487-552. [Photos.]

Gardner, G. Marshall. English Medieval Sculpture. Cambridge, 1951.

Keyser, C. E. A List of Buildings in Great Britain and Ireland Having Mural and other Painted Decorations of Dates Prior to the Latter Part of the Sixteenth Century, with Historical Introduction and Alphabetical Index of Subjects. Science and Art Department of the Committee of Council on Education, 3rd ed., enlarged. London 1883.

Martens, Maximiliaan P. J. Lodewijk van Gruuthuse. Brugge. [Catalogue of exhibition seen Fall 1992.] [Color plates, b&w photos, identified; Notes; Bibliography; Concordance.]

Martin, Kurt, ed. Minnesanger. Baden-Baden/Aachen, 1966. [Color plates, identified.]

Medieval Lovers: A Book of Days. London, 1988. [Color plates, identified.]

Meiss, Millard. Painting in Florence and Siena After the Black Death. Princeton, NJ, 1951. [Numerous reproductions.]

Morey, Charles Rufus. Mediaeval Art. NY, 1942. [Vices & Virtues figures.]

Morgan, N. J. Early Gothic Illuminated Manuscripts (I) 1190-1250. NY, 1982. [Catalog of BL manuscripts; Lists contents of ms, describes illustrations/illumintions by subject, actions, colors; Provides provenance; Lists literature re the ms.]

Pageant of the Birth, Life, and Death of Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, K.G. 1389-1439. [from BL MS Cotton, Julius E IV.] Ed. Harold Arthur, Viscount Dillon, and W. H. St. John Hope. London, 1914. [Pictures.]

Rezak, Brigitte Bedos. “Medieval Seals and the Structure of Chivalric Society” in The Study of Chivalry: Resources and Approaches. Ed. Howell Chickering, and Thomas H. Seiler. Kalamazoo, MI, 1988. [Photos, b&w identified; List of photo-ordering resources & addresses; Notes; Bibliography, by category; List of illustrations.]

Rickert, Margaret. Painting in Britain: The Middle Ages. Baltimore, 1965. [Pictures.]

Thomas, Marcel. The Golden Age: Manuscript Painting at the Time of Jean, Duke of Berry. NY, 1979. [Color plates & comentary, b&w figures; Catalogue; Notes; Select bibliography.]

Woodforde, Christopher. The Norwich School of Glass-Painting in the Fifteenth Century. London, 1950. [Includes plates of judicial, legal subjects.]

Wright, Thomas. A History of Caricature and Grotesque in Literature and Art. NY, 1968 [rpt. from London ed., 1865]. [Sketches.]

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Bouquet, A. C. Church Brasses. London, 1956. [Pictures, identified.]

Boutell, C. The Monumental Brasses of England. London, 1849. [Pictures, identified; Notes.]

Clayton, Muriel. Catalogue of Rubbings of Brasses and Incised Slabs. London: Victoria and Albert Museum, 1929. [Described by John B. Friedman: “A catalogue raisonné of this important medium, chiefly bourgeois and English. Many plates.”]

Druitt, Herbert. A Manual of Costume as Illustrated by Monumental Brasses. Philadelphia, n.d. [Photos, b&w, identified; Lists of brasses by social categories; Notes.]

Emmerson, Robin. “Design for Mass Productiion: Monumental Brasses Made in London ca. 1420-1485.” Artistes, artisans, et production artistique (item 156), 133-71. [Described by John B. Friedman: “Very useful overview article on the funerary brass trade, accompanied by a large number of rubbings and enlarged details of faces, hems, and letters used on these. Helpful in identifying other productions of the London workshops.”]

Fallows, William. Northleach Brasses. No publication info. [Pictures.]

Gallagher, Carol T. Brass Images: Medieval Lives. Lexington, 1980. [B&w plates; Descriptions.]

Gough, R. Sepulchral Monuments in Great Britain. London, 1786 (Part I), and 1796 (Part II). [B&w plates; Descriptions; Commentary.]

Macklin, H. W. The Brasses of England. London, 1907. [B&w plates, identified; Brasses listed by categories.]

Norris, Malcolm. Monumental Brasses: The Craft. London: Faber & Faber, 1978. [Described by John B. Friedman: “Basic study of the purpose, manufacture, and patronage of funerary brasses. Extensive bibliography.”]

Stephanson, Mill. A Revised List of Monumental Brasses in the British Isles. London: Monumental Brass Society, 1977. [Described by John B. Friedman: “A slender handlist identifying and briefly describing funerary brasses in England by church and county. Some plates.”]

Stevens, Sally and Tim Tiley, comps. Brasses: A Few Notes on Monumental Brasses from the West Country. Bristol: Tim Tiley Prints, n.d. [B&w plates.]

Trivick, Henry H. The Craft and Design of Monumental Brasses. London: J. Baker; New York: Humanities Press, 1969. [Described by John B. Friedman: “Eighty-five plates and bibliography.”]

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Beal, Rebecca. “Arthur as the Bearer of Civilization: The Alliterative Morte Arthure 11. 901-19.” Arthuriana 5.4 (Winter, 1995): 32-44. [Notes, Bibliography].

Breeze, Andrew. “An Irish Etymology for Chaucer’s Falding (‘Coarse Wollen Cloth’).” Chaucer Review 35.1 (2000): 112-14. [Notes.]

Burns, E. Jane. Courtly Love Undressed: Reading Through Clothes in Medieval French Culture. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002. [Notes; Bibliography; Index.]

—-. “Ladies Don’t Wear Braies: Underwear in the French Prose Lancelot.” The Lancelot-Grail Cycle. Ed. William W. Kibler. Austin: U of Texas P, 1994. [Notes.]

Crane, Susan. “Talking Garments.” The Performance of Self: Ritual, Clothing and Identity During the Hundred Years War. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002. 10-38. [B&w pictures; Notes; Bibliography; Index.]

DiMarco, Vincent. “Wearing the ‘Vitremyte’: A Note on Chaucer and Boccaccio.” ELN 25.4 (1988): 15-19. [Notes.]

Heller, Sarah-Grace. “Light as Glamour: The Luminescent Ideal of Beauty in the Roman de la Rose.” Speculum 76.4 (2001): 934-59. [Notes.]

Hodges, Laura F. “‘Syngne,’ ‘Conysaunce,’ ‘Deuys’: Three Pentangles in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight,” Arthuriana 5.4 (Winter, 1995): 22-31. [Notes, Bibliography].

—-. Chaucer and Clothing: Clerical and Academic Costume in the General Prologue to the Canterbury Tales. Chaucer Studies 34. Cambridge, Engl.: D.S. Brewer, 2005. [Color plates, b&w photos, sketches, line drawings; Notes; Bibliography; Index.]

—-. Chaucer and Costume: The Secular Pilgrims in the General Prologue. Chaucer Studies 26. Cambridge, Engl.: D.S. Brewer, 2000. [Color plates, b&w photos, sketches, line drawings; Notes; Bibliography; Index.]

—-. “Sartorial Signs in Troilus and Criseyde.” Chaucer Review 35.3 (2001): 223-59. [Notes.]

Hudson, Vivian Kay. “Clothing and Adornment Imagery in ‘The Scale of Perfection’: A Reflection of Contemplation.” Studies in Spirituality 4 (1994): 116-45. [Notes.]

Moon, Douglas M. “Clothing Symbolism in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.” Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 66 (1965): 334-47. [Notes.]

Mullaney, Samantha. “The Language of Costume in the Ellesmere Portraits. Sources, Exemplars and Copy-Texts: Influence and Transmission.” Trivium (special ed.) 31 (1999): 33-57. [Notes.]

Nickel, Helmut. “About Arthurian Armings, for War and for Love.” Arthuriana 5.4 (Winter, 1995): 3-21. [Line drawings; Notes; Bibliography]

Scase, Wendy. “Proud Gallants and Popeholy Priests: The Context and Function of a Fifteenth-Century Satirical Poem.” Medium Ævum 63.2 (1994): 275-86. [Notes.]

Stock, Lorraine Kochanski. “‘Arms and the (Wo)man’ in Medieval Romance: The Gendered Arming of Female Warriors in the Roman d’Eneas and Heldris’s Roman de Silence.” Arthuriana 5.4 (Winter, 1995): 56- 83. [Notes, Bibliography].

Wright, Michelle R. “Designing the End of History in the Arming of Galahad.” Arthuriana 5.4 (Winter, 1995): 45-55. [Notes, Bibliography].

Yoshikawa, Naoë Kukita. “Searching for the Image of New Ecclesia: Margery Kempe’s Spiritual Pilgrimage Reconsidered.” Medieval Perspectives 11 (1996): 125-38. [Notes; Esp. 131ff. re: Margery’s white clothing.]

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Encountering Medieval Textiles and Dress: Objects, Texts, Images. Ed Desirée G. Koslin and Janet E. Snyder. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002. [Notes; B&w photos, sketches; Glossary; Index.]

Medieval Clothing and Textiles. Vol. 1. Ed. Robin Netherton and Gale R. Owen-Crocker. Woodbridge: The Boydell Press, 2005. [Notes; B&w photos, line drawings, sketches, charts; Book reviews; Index.]

Medieval Clothing and Textiles. Vol. 2. Ed. Robin Netherton and Gale R. Owen-Crocker. Woodbridge: The Boydell Press, 2006. [Notes; B&w photos, line drawings, sketches, charts; Book reviews; Index.]

Robes and Honor: The Medieval World of Investiture. Ed Stewart Gordon. New York: Palgrave, 2001. [B&w photos, maps, sketches; Notes; Index.]


Note: This bibliography is not exhaustive. There may well be both older and newer editions of these dictionaries available. Also, some of the dictionaries listed below are designed for experienced scholars.

English Dictionaries:

Anglo-Norman Dictionary. Eds William Rothwell, et al. London, 1977-1992.

Bosworth, Joseph. An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. 1898; rpt. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1976. Supplement by T. Northcote Toller. London: Oxford University Press, 1966.

Hall, J.R. Clark. A Concise Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. Supplement by Herbert D. Meritt. 4th ed. Toronto, Buffalo, London, 1984.

Middle English Dictionary. Eds Hans Kurath, Sherman M. Kuhn, John Reidy, and Robert E. Lewis. Ann Arbor, MI, 1952-2001.

Oxford English Dictionary. Eds J.A. Simpson and E.S.C. Weiner. 2nd ed. Oxford, 1989. 20 vols.

Non-English Language Dictionaries:

La Curne de Sainte-Palaye, J. B. Dictionnaire historique de l’ancien langage français. Paris, 1875; rpt. 1972. 10 vols.

von Daele, H. Petit dictionnaire de l’ancien français. Paris: Garnier, 1939.

Godefroy, Frédéric. Dictionnaire de l’ancienne langue française et de tous les dialectes. Paris, 1881-1902; 1937-38. 10 vols.

Godefroy, Frédéric. Lexique de l’ancien français. Paris: Champion, 1965; 2003.

Grandsaignes d’Hauterive, Robert. Dictionnaire d’ancien français. Paris, 1947.

Greimas, Algirdas Julien. Dictionnaire de l’ancien français jusqu’au milieu du XIVe siècle. Paris, 1980; 1992.

Hindley, Alan. Old French-English Dictionary. New York, NY, 2000.

Tobler, A. et E. Lommatzsch. Altfranzösisches Wörterbuch. Stuttghart, 1925-2002. 11 vols.

Etymological Dictionaries:

Bloch, Oscar et Walter von Wartburg. Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue française. Paris, 1932.

Dauzat, Albert, Jean Dubois et Henri Mitterand. Nouveau dictionnaire étymologique et historique. Librairie Larousse. Paris, 1971.

Dauzat, Albert. Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue française. Larousse. Paris, 1938.

Gamilischeg, Ernst. Etymologisches Wörterbuch der französischen Sprache. Heidelberg, 1928.

Meyer-Lübke, Wilhem. Romanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch. Heidelberg, 1935.

von Wartburg, Walter. Französisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch. Tubingen, 1948. 24 vols.

History of Costume Dictionaries:

Cunnington, C. Willett, Phillis Cunnington, and Charles Beard. A Dictionary of English Costume. London, 1960. [Line drawings]

Planché, James Robinson. A cyclopaedia of costume, or, Dictionary of dress. 2 vols. London, 1876.

Planché, James Robinson. An Illustrated Dictionary of Historic Costume: From the First Century B.C. to C.1760. Mineola, NY, 2003. [Republication of 1876 ed. with change of title.]

Website Dictionary Information:

Butler Library of Columbia University Libraries: Dictionaries and research tools for Medieval Studies

Early Modern English Dictionaries Database:

George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida: Descriptions of the contents of dictionaries of medieval languages